Welding Symbols and Abbreviations

WELDING SYMBOL

FIGURE 10.1 ■ Standard welding symbol.

A standard welding symbol and weld symbols have been developed by the American Welding Society (AWS). These symbols developed by the AWS are covered in detail in the units that follow. The standard welding symbol, Figure 10.1, consists of a reference line, an arrow, and a tail. Each component has a particular function. The refer­ence line is used to apply weld symbols and other data, and the arrow connects the reference line to the joint or area to be welded. The tail is added only when needed for the purpose of including a specification process or other reference.

The phrase welding symbol refers to the total symbol including all information added to it to specify the weld(s) required. Weld symbol, on the other hand, refers to the symbol for a specific type of weld. The weld symbol is only part of the total information that may be con­tained in the welding symbol.

FIGURE 10.2 ■ Variations in the application of the

FIGURE 10.3 ■ Arrow side, other side locations.

The arrow of the welding symbol may be shown with or without a break. When shown with a break, the break is made toward the member of the joint that is to be prepared or shaped, Figure 10.2. Note that if there is no pref­erence as to which joint member is to be prepared, or it is obvious which member is to be prepared, the arrow need not be shown with a break. The arrow is always drawn at an angle to the reference line. It is never drawn parallel (horizontal) to or in the same plane as the reference line.

Multiple arrows may be added to the reference line to show the same weld required in several different locations, as in the case of a group of spot or fillet welds, Figure 10.2.

The reference line of the welding symbol also has a particular significance that remains the same regard­less of the elements added to it, and it is always drawn horizontal to the bottom of the print. The lower side of the reference line is termed the arrow side and the upper side is termed the other side, Figure 10.3. It should be noted that the terms “arrow side” and “other side” apply to the location of the weld with respect to the joint. The direction of the arrow has no bearing on the significance of the reference line (refer to Figure 10.4a). The arrow simply indicates a point to which the significance of the reference line and its elements are applied.

(a)

FIGURE 10.4(a, b) ■ Application of multiple reference lines to the standard welding symbol.

Multiple reference lines may also be used within the basic welding symbol, Figure 10.4(b). Additional informa­tion on multiple reference lines is presented later in this unit.

LOCATION OF WELD SYMBOL

FIGURE 10.5(a, b) ■ Fillet weld, arrow side.

When a weld symbol is placed on the reference line on the lower side of the line, the weld must be made on the arrow side of the joint.

Figure 10.5(a) illustrates the application of a welding symbol. The element shown on the refer­ence line is the weld symbol for fillet J/7 or. The symbol is located within the length of the reference line. In this case, the weld is to be made on the arrow side of the joint. The significance of the symbol is illustrated in Figure 10.5(b). Note that the vertical leg of the fillet weld symbol is always shown drawn to the left of the slanted side of the symbol.

If the fillet weld symbol is placed on the other side of the reference line, the welding symbol is made as shown in Figure 10.6(a). Its significance is shown in Figure 10.6(b).

To summarize, Figure 10.7(a) and Figure 10.8(a) illustrate the alternate positions of the weld symbol on the refer­ence line. The significance of the welding symbol in each case is illustrated by Figure 10.7(b) and Figure 10.8(b).

When weld symbols are placed on both sides of the reference line, the welds must be made on both sides of the joint, Figure 10.9 and Figure 10.10.

FIGURE 10.6(a, b) Fillet weld, other side.

(a) SYMBOL (b) SIGNIFICANCE

(a) SYMBOL (b) SIGNIFICANCE

FIGURE 10.7(a, b) ■ Fillet weld, arrow side.

FIGURE 10.9(a, b) ■ Fillet weld, both sides.

(a) SYMBOL (b) SIGNIFICANCE

FIGURE 10.8(a, b) ■ Fillet weld, other side.

(a) SYMBOL (b) SIGNIFICANCE

FIGURE 10.10 ■ Two-joint fillet welds (both sides of joints).

(a) SYMBOL (b) SIGNIFICANCE

FINISH DESIGNATOR

CONTOUR SYMBOL

GROOVE WELD SIZE—

SPECIFICATION PROCESS, OR OTHER REFERENCE

GROOVE ANGLE; INCLUDED ANGLE OF COUNTERSINK FOR PLUG WELDS

ROOT OPENING; DEPTH OF FILLING FOR PLUG AND SLOT WELDS

LENGTH OF WELD

PITCH (CENTER-TO-CENTER SPACING) OF WELDS

WELD SYMBOL

NUMBER OF SPOT, SEAM, STUD, PLUG, SLOT,

OR PROJECTION WELDS

DEPTH OF BEVEL; SIZE
OR STRENGTH FOR

CERTAIN WELDS

FIELD WELD SYMBOL

WELD-ALL- AROUND SYMBOL

TAIL (MAY BE OMITTED WHEN REFERENCE IS NOT USED)

ARROW CONNECTING REFERENCE LINE TO ARROW SIDE MEMBER OF JOINT OR ARROW SIDE OF JOINT

ELEMENTS IN THIS AREA REMAIN AS SHOWN WHEN TAIL AND ARROW ARE REVERSED

WELD SYMBOLS SHALL BE CONTAINED WITHIN THE LENGTH OF THE REFERENCE LINE

FIGURE 10.11 ■ The welding symbol, its elements, and their locations.

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