MULTIPLE REFERENCE LINES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

Additional reference lines may be applied to the basic welding symbol to show: (1) a sequence of welding operations where the first opera­tion must be completed before the next can be performed and (2) supplementary symbols applicable to the weld symbol shown on the first reference line. Note that the first reference line is the one located closest to the arrow, Figure 10.31(a, b, and c).

When multiple reference lines are applied to the basic welding symbol, the weld-all-around and field weld symbols may be added to one or all of the reference lines. Tails may be added similarly, Figure 10.32.

WELDING

ABBREVIATIONS

Standard abbreviations or letter designations for the various welding processes developed by the AWS are universally accepted by the welding industry.

The welder will find these standard abbrevia­tions on prints used for the fabrication of weld - ments. Table 10.1, Table 10.2, and Table 10.3 illustrate the letter designations used for welding processes, cutting processes, and the methods of applying these processes. These letter desig­nations are used with welding symbols or are included in the notes on prints. Note that the abbreviation for each welding process ends with the letter “W” and for each cutting process with the letter “C”.

FIGURE 10.30(a, b) Duplicate welds.

FIGURE 10.31(a) ■ Sequence of operations signified by multiple reference lines.

FIGURE 10.31(b) ■ Application of weld symbols to multiple reference lines.

FIGURE 10.31(c) ■ Application of supplementary data to second reference line.

BACK WELD,

— FIELD

4

OTHER SIDE ----------- у

WELD

BACK >

V aN

(Л SYMBOL

GOUGE у

SEE v

^WELD-

DETAILX _

Ж ALL-AROUND

'■ / Л

. SYMBOL

SINGLE U-GROOVE / WELD, ARROW SIDE------------------------------- '

V

FIGURE 10.32 ■ Application of field weld symbol, and tails to multiple reference line.

AAW

Air Acetylene Welding

GTAW

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

AB

Arc Brazing

GTAW-P

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding-Pulsed Arc

AHW

Atomic Hydrogen Welding

HPW

Hot Pressure Welding

AW

Arc Welding

IB

Induction Brazing

В

Brazing

IRB

Infrared Brazing

BB

Block Brazing

IW

Induction Welding

BMAW

Bare Metal Arc Welding

LBW

Laser Beam Welding

CAW

Carbon Arc Welding

OAW

Oxyacetylene Welding

CAW-G

Gas Carbon Arc Welding

OFW

Oxyfuel Gas Welding

CAW-S

Shielded Carbon Arc Welding

OHW

Oxyhydrogen Welding

CAW-T

Twin Carbon Arc Welding

PAW

Plasma Arc Welding

CEW

Coextrusion Welding

PEW

Percussion Welding

CW

Cold Welding

PGW

Pressure Gas Welding

DFB

Diffusion Brazing

PW

Projection Welding

DFW

Diffusion Welding

RB

Resistance Brazing

DP

Dip Brazing

ROW

Roll Welding

EASP

Electric Arc Spraying

RSEW

Resistance Seam Welding

EBW

Electron Beam Welding

RSEW-HF

Resistance Seam Welding-High Frequency

EBW-HV

Electron Beam Welding-High Vacuum

RSEW-I

Resistance Seam Welding-lnduction

EBW-MV

Electron Beam Welding-Medium Vacuum

RSW

Resistance Spot Welding

EBW-NV

Electron Beam Welding-Nonvacuum

RW

Resistance Welding

EGW

Electrogas Welding

SAW

Submerged Arc Welding

ESW

Electroslag Welding

SAW-S

Series Submerged Arc Welding

EXW

Explosion Welding

SMAW

Shielded Metal Arc Welding

FB

Furnace Brazing

SSW

Solid-State Welding

FCAW

Flux Cored Arc Welding

SW

Stud Arc Welding

FLB

Flow Brazing

ТВ

Torch Brazing

FLOW

Flow Welding

TCAB

Twin Carbon Arc Brazing

FOW

Forge Welding

TW

Thermit Welding

FRW

Friction Welding

USW

Ultrasonic Welding

FW

Flash Welding

UW

Upset Welding

GMAW

Gas Metal Arc Welding

UW-HF

Upset Welding-High Frequency

GMAW-P

Gas Metal Arc Welding-Pulsed Arc

UW-I

Upset Welding-lnduction

GMAW-S

Gas Metal Arc Welding-Short Circuiting Arc

TABLE 10.1 ■ Letter designations for welding processes.

AAC

Air Carbon Arc Cutting

AC

Arc Cutting

А0С

Oxygen Arc Cutting

CAC

Carbon Arc Cutting

EBC

Electron Beam Cutting

F0C

Chemical Flux Cutting

GMAC

Gas Metal Arc Cutting

GTAC

Gas Tungsten Arc Cutting

LB С

Laser Beam Cutting

LBC-A

Laser Beam Cutting-Air

LBC-EV

Laser Beam Cutting-Evaporative

LBC-IG

Laser Beam Cutting-Inert Gas

LBC-0

Laser Beam Cutting-Oxygen

L0C

Oxygen Lance Cutting

MAC

Metal Arc Cutting

ОС

Oxygen Cutting

0FC

Oxyfuel Gas Cutting

0FC-A

Oxyacetylene Cutting

0FC-H

Oxyhydrogen Cutting

0FC-N

Oxynatural Gas Cutting

0FC-P

Oxypropane Cutting

РАС

Plasma Arc Cutting

РОС

Metal Powder Cutting

SMAC

Shielded Metal Arc Cutting

TC

Thermal Cutting

TABLE 10.2 ■ Letter designations for cutting processes.

TABLE 10.3 ■ Letter designations for applying welding processes.

Note: These suffixes may be used if it is desired to indicate the methods of applying the welding processes, Figure 10.36.

Figure 10.33 shows how letter designations for welding processes are applied to welding sym­bols. Note that in each case the letters are located in the tail of the arrow.

When a contour symbol is used, an abbre­viation for the method of finish may be included, Figure 10.34. All letters shown on prints do not necessarily represent letter designations or abbre­viations. For example, letters can be used with specifications, Figure 10.35. In this case, the letter “A” has no significance except to identify the specification to which reference is made.

There are other occasions when letters are used solely for identification purposes. As weld­ers become familiar with reading prints, they will be able to distinguish between the letters applied as abbreviations and those used to iden­tify specifications.

PROCESS REFERENCE

FIGURE 10.33 ■ Application of abbreviations to welding symbols.

PROCESS REFERENCE PLACED IN TAIL OF

FIGURE 10.34 ■ Finish abbreviations, also called finish symbols.

FIGURE 10.35 ■ Letter “A” used for

identification of specification.

FIGURE 10.37 ■ Application of weld symbol dimension tolerance.

FIGURE 10.36 ■ Suffixes indicating method of applying welding process.

Note: AW=ARC welding process

MA=Method used to do welding

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