Design of current flow

LEDs may be grown on conductive and insulating substrates. Whereas the current flow is mostly vertical (normal to the substrate plane) in structures grown on conductive substrates, it is mostly lateral (horizontal) in devices grown on insulating substrates. The location and size of ohmic contacts are relevant to light extraction, because metal contacts are opaque. The current chapter discusses the current flow patterns of different device structures aimed at high extraction efficiency.

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